To have an idea about this class, please look at the Syllabus slides below. This year the class will be 90% similar to the one of the last year. Laboratory work will be (mostly) concentrated in May and June. March and April up to Easter will be mostly spent to develop the theoretical parts.

Lectures and lab classes will be recorded and uploaded on my YouTube channel.

The intermediate exam will be written with 3 questions about the topic treated to which the student will be asked to answer with text, figures and formulas. The final exam will be a discussion of the exercises provided by the students int the form of Jupyter notebooks plus a short Python exercise. Each of the exercises will be discussed separately and by booking an appointment with the professor before the formal date of the exam or at the day of the final exam. The touch-screen at the first floor of the Mesiano building will be used for the presentations.

This Hydrology class aims to explain the physics (meaning the mathematical equations and their phenomenology) and, in some cases, their statistics (i.e. the distribution) of the basic hydrological processes (precipitation, runoff, infiltration, evaporation and transpiration)

Students will be required to: being able to derive and comment the hydrological equations above mentioned and to do some statistics on hydrological data. Particular attention will be dedicated to the derivation of the statistics of extreme rainfall.

They will learn how to delineate a catchment for digital elevation models through some appropriate tools. Besides students will be requested to get some basics of the tools that will be used to estimate the hydrological fluxes (using a GIS, Python, and other tools, among those in GEOframe).

They will be required to be able, by means of some models provided by the instructors the main hydrological fluxes and represent them at catchment scale.

This is intended to serve as a basis for getting further knowledge and

- prevent, manage, control floods, landslides and snow-avalanches
- manage irrigation
- estimate water availability for hydropower production
- forecast roads freezing
- estimate soil, roads, or snow temperature
- forecast snow water equivalent and snow height

Assuming that the student will take a master in Environmental Engineering at Trento University, Acquedotti e fognature, Modelli idrologici, Ingegneria fluviale, are classe that request the knowledge communicate in this Hydrology class.

The first part of the course, until April 3, will be dedicated to the presentation and discussion of theoretical concepts through lectures that will be videotaped and uploaded on the course's YouTube channel (or Vimeo). The lessons will cover 4 of the five hours per week. The fifth hour will be devoted to simple exercises with Python and Jupyter lab and to the preparation of the data necessary for the projects to be completed in the second part of the course in groups of two or three students.

The student must take care to understand the hydrological concepts and discuss them with the lecturer. The first twenty minutes of each lesson will be devoted to the discussion of the topics covered in the previous lesson. Each group will have to prepare one question or comment to which the teacher will answer. A summary of the lesson will follow, followed by the actual lesson. The second part of the course will take up the theoretical themes of the first part and using the tools made available to the GEOframe system. Students, in groups of two or three, will have to:

There is no engineering without using models. During the class will be used various open source softwares and resources:The student must take care to understand the hydrological concepts and discuss them with the lecturer. The first twenty minutes of each lesson will be devoted to the discussion of the topics covered in the previous lesson. Each group will have to prepare one question or comment to which the teacher will answer. A summary of the lesson will follow, followed by the actual lesson. The second part of the course will take up the theoretical themes of the first part and using the tools made available to the GEOframe system. Students, in groups of two or three, will have to:

- Analyze a series of rainfall and hydro-meteorological data with the use of Python
- Estimate the intensity-duration-frequency curves with the methods presented in the first part of the course using the data of a hydro-meteorological gauge station
- Design, under the supervision of the tutor and the teacher, and run some infiltration simulations in complex soils and discuss the results.
- Design, under the supervision of the tutor and the teacher, and perform the calculation of evaporation and perspiration in a chosen site

## Used Software

- Python 3.* within Jupyterlab for scripting, and in particular the numpy, scipy, matplotlib (also here) and pandas (also here).
- Part of the GEOframe system for the various simulations.

Lab material can be found here

**Lab material of the last year can be found here**

## Foreseen Schedule

Material uploaded is subject to modifications prior to the schedule date**2020-02-26**

- (a) Syllabus (YouTube 2020); - (b) A very short introduction to hydrology (YouTube 2019,YouTube2020); (c) Mass & Energy budgets (YouTube 2019,YouTube2020)
- Homework: Installation of Python and Jupyter (hints)

**2020-03-05**-

**Ground based Precipitations and their statistics Separation snow-rainfall - measure of precipitation**

- A general (old) overview (YouTube2019) - A general overview 2020 (YouTube2020)
- (X) Separation rainfall-snowfall (optional)
- Statistics of ground precipitations (YouTube2019, YouTube2020)
- Whiteboard 2020 on Lognormal distribution

**2020-03-11**

**Extreme precipitations**(Storyboard2020)

- Return period (Zoom2020)
- Further readings
- Intensity-duration-frequency curves and return period (YouTube 2018: Return period, IDF)
- Intensity duration Frequency curves (YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Gumbel distribution for extremes (YouTube2019, Zoom2020)

**2020-03-13 Extreme precipitations part 2.**(Storyboard2020)

- Minimi quadrati (YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Test di Pearsons/Chi square (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- More formal on Pearson's Chi square (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Generalised extreme value distribution (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Metastatistical Extreme Value (Zoom2020)
- Installation of the geoframe-vicenza environment with Anaconda (Zoom2020)
- Required files (geoframe-vicenza.yaml, etc)
- Introducing some tools for the Lab

**2020-03- 18**-

**Water in soil and aquifers. Darcy-Buckingham. Hydraulic conductivity. Soil water retention curves (**Storyboard2020

**)**

- Soils (YouTube 2017,YouTube2018,YouTube 2019)
- Definitions (YouTube 2017,YouTube2018,YouTube 2019)
- Texture and Structure of soils (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.8
- Aquifers (YouTube 2019)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.7
- Darcy-Buckingham law (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018)
- Darcy (YouTube 2019)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.1 and section 2.12

**2020-03-20**

- Buckingham 2019 (YouTube 2019), Buckingham 2020 (Zoom2020)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.2
- Soil Water RetentionCurves (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6

- Hydraulic Conductivity
- Conductivity in unsaturated soils (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Saturated conductivity (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.3 and section 2.4
- Further readings

**2020 - 03- 25**-

**The Richards equation**(Storyboard 2020)

- Just the divergence Theorem (YouTube2018,YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6
- Solving Richards equation (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- Pedotransfer Functions - (YouTube2017,YouTube2019 I & II, Zoom2020)
- Richards 1D (YouTube2019, Zoom2020)
- (Optional) simplifications of Richards 1D (YouTube2017,YouTube2019)
- Further information:

**2020-03-27 - Flipped Class on some topics of Soil and Groundwater**

- Macropores (YouTube2019)
- Fill and Spill
- The groundwater equation (YouTube2019)
- Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater (Section 2.9 and section 2.11)

- Further Readings or views (optionals)

**2020-04-01 - Runoff Generation (**Summary 2020

**)**

- Runoff Mechanisms (YouTube2019 I and II). (Zoom 2020)
- Simplified views of runoff (YouTube2019, Zoom2020)

**Q&A - Runoff**

**2020-04-03 - Surface flow**

**Evaporation generalities**

- Evaporation thermodynamics (YouTube2017,YouTube2018)
- Evaporation as Entropy growth (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Evaporation causes diffusion of water vapor (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)

**2020-04-08 - Evaporation from soils and Transpiration (**Storyboard2020

**)**

- Definitions (YouTube2017,YouTube2018, YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Turbulent transport of vapor (and other quantities): the Dalton law (YouTube2018, YouTube 2019, Zoom2020)
- Answer to a student on displacement length and roughness length (Whiteboard2020)
- Some missing link about q(z0), the specific humidity at the evaporating surface (Storyboard2020)
- A little more of synthesis and a summary for what is below (Storyboard2020)
- Evaporation as energy and mass transport (Zoom2020)
- Evaporation form soils (Zoom2020)
- Schymanski & Or derivation of Penman-Monteith equation (Zoom2020)
- Soil Evaporation (reprise Zoom2020)
- Transpiration potential (Zoom2020)
- Plants physiology and resistances to transpiration (supplemental material)
- Simplification of the P-M solution (PM-FAO e Priestley-Taylor) (Zoom2020)
- From Leaves to Canopies (Zoom2020)
- Budyko simplification

- Old stuff (but still good for who likes variety):
- Evaporation as energy and mass transport (Energy YouTubeVideo2019, Mass YouTubeVideo2019)
- Evaporation from soils and transpiration (From soils YouTubeVideo2019, From Plants YouTube 2019 video)
- Penman-Monteith-Schymanski-Or (Some final comments: YouTube2019Video)
- PMSO with feedbacks (YouTube2019 Video)
- From a leaf to canopies (YouTube2019 Video)
- Budyko simplification (YouTube2019Video)
- Soil evaporation (YouTube2017, YouTube2018)
- Transpiration (YouTube2017, YouTube2018 I, II)
- Evaporation as energy transport (YouTube2018)
- Penman-Monteith (YouTube2018)

**Questions for the intermediate examinations**

**References**

The lessons will be video recorded and made available. Each lesson will be given through slides in English which will be delivered to students in advance. When necessary, the lessons will be accompanied by appropriate in-depth articles. There is no real text because the course, even when it is fully in the hydrological tradition, elaborates the concepts in a contemporary way and uses innovative tools.

As general reference texts we recommend:

- Bras, R.L, An introduction to Hydrologic Science, ISBN-13: 978-0201059229, 1989 - ISBN-10: 0201059223, Addison-Wesley (July 1, 1989)
- Brutsaert, W., Hydrology: an introduction, ISBN-13: 978-0521824798 - ISBN-10: 0521824796, Cambridge University Press, 2005
- Dingmann, L., Physical Hydrology, ISBN-13: 978-1478611189, ISBN-10: 1478611189, Third Edition, Waveland Press, 2015
- Freeze, A. ; Cherry, J., Groundwater, 1979
- Lu, n. and Godt, J.W., Hillslope Hydrology and Stability, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13: 978-1107021068, ISBN-10: 11070210652010, 2013

These books represent a shareable review of phenomena and hydrological modeling but the methods they present are not necessarily those used in the course. The course, also for reasons of time, presents a selected and limited perspective of the subject that the texts cited dissect from various points of view.

**Lab material can be found here**

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