In the last years I focused on building a reliable system for doing hydrology by computer. This systems learns from the implementation of the process-based GEOtop (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.com/2015/02/geotop-essentials.html) and is based on the framework developed by ARS/USDA called OMS3 (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.com/2017/08/oms-3-essentials.html). The new system is called GEOframe (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.com/2015/03/jgrass-newage-essentials.html).
Sunday, September 19, 2021
Tuesday, August 31, 2021
I found the below figure which I do not know the Author which I think can be useful to understand both what it is implied in writing a scientific paper and what is a theory, with respect to more simple analysis of data (or models, BTW). The first four arrangements of the data have some interest but, they do not capture much our interest. To do a gory example, is like to take an animal or a tree, separate them in parts and analyzing them from the point of view of the atoms it is made. This information is real but it does not say anything crucial about the living being. The being important think is realized when all the material is put together again (it would be great if the separation operation would be reversible) and it is analyzed in its "holistic" form and function.
Wednesday, August 18, 2021
Scientific Committee: Prof. Riccardo Rigon, Ph.D.; Prof. Giuseppe Formetta, Ph.D; Ing. Niccolò Tubini, Ing. Concetta d’Amato, Ing. Marialaura Bancheri, Ph.D.
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento
Center Agriculture Food Environment, University of Trento
Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems in the Mediterranean, National Research Council, Ercolano NA, Italy
The Earth’s Critical Zone (CZ) is defined as the heterogeneous, near surface environment in which complex interactions involving rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms regulate the natural habitat and determine the availability of life-sustaining resources (National Research Council, 2001). Clear interest in studying the CZ is spurred on by ever-increasing pressure due to the growth in human population and climatic changes.
Main topics will embrace the water flow (and heat transport) in porous media, the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and inverse problems. The aim of the course is to enable participants to run their own simulations with the GEOframe tools prepared to simulate the critical zone. They are process-based (e.g. Fatichi et al, 2016) tools, whose ambition is to simulate the processes of infiltration, heat transport and evaporation and transpiration. The GSS2021 deals mainly with the 1D tools and introduces the 2D ones called WHETGEO (1D and 2D), GEOframe-Prospero and LysGEO.
Besides the lectures and the hands-on sessions, the Summer School is the occasion for discussion and experience exchange among senior scholars and young researchers.
The School will be online on the Zoom platform.
Admissions are reserved to up to 30, PhD students and postdoctoral students, young researchers willing to learn the use of the GEOframe tools envisioned for the study of infiltration, energy budget, vegetation transpiration, water budget with process-based models
All students are asked to upload a CV and a motivation letter when applying.
WORKLOAD AND CREDITS
The Summer School which is to be held in English, consists of 6 hours/day of activities for 6 days. The first two days, 27, 28 of September the installation of the GEOframe-OMS system tools and the general characteristics of the system. Lectures will be brief, dedicated to informatics and most of the time will be used for supporting participants’ installations.
The other four days will cover simulation of infiltration with WHETGEO-1D and 2D, with Prospero Transpiration model, and with the LysGEO model. There will be lectures on the hydrological processes implemented and applications to use cases.
Due to the Covid-19 emergency all the activities will be held via Zoom.
The cost is free for Students of the Hydrological Modelling Classes at the University of Trento, for Ph.D. students of the University of Trento DICAM and C3A programs, for the participants of the WATZON PRIN project and for all who wants to participate without having a certificate of GEOframe proficiency. Subscription to the class is necessary to receive the information to participate. For those who want the certificate, the Course costs 180 Euros. In any case the certificate is issued after the presentation of a small project of simulations for which appropriate tutoring will be given during and after the School.
For further information write to: firstname.lastname@example.org or to the Secretary of the Class dott. Lorena Galante, email@example.com
The GSS2021 talks and labs will be recorded and made publicly available during the School for self-training through the GEOframe blog (http://geoframe.blogspot.com).
These days are dedicated to those who never approached the GEOframe system and pursue the understanding of how it works. Who already knows how GEOframe works or have already installed it for different purposes than those of this School, can skip them
- Introduction to the Object Modelling System and GEOframe Infrastructures (Verona 2022 environment)
- Installation of OMS and GEOframe Verona
- Brief introduction to Jupyter notebooks and Python
- Few examples and Problem solving
This morning is mostly dedicated to fill theory of the processes investigated by this School on GEOframe, meaning infiltration in soil, the basics of Richards/Richardson equation to which follow some exercises. The afternoon will be used to discuss issues related to the application of different boundary conditions, different parameterizations of the soil water retention curves.
- The Richardson-Richards equation
- The equation and its parts, and three form of the equation
- Soil Water Retention Curves
- Hydraulic conductivity models
- Numerical issues to keep in mind
- Practical session on Richardson-Richards equatio
- one homogeneous layer
- stratified layers
- playing with boundary conditions
- Presenting the results with Jupyter Notebooks
This day is dedicated to discuss the problem of the surface boundary condition.
- Surface boundary condition and numerical issues
- Practical session simulating:
- Horton process
- Dunnian process
- Presenting the results with Jupyter Notebooks
- Individual exercises with support
This day is dedicated to the bi-dimensional case of the Richardson-Richards equation and to present the radiation energy budget.
- Installing the software for building unstructured grids
- Manage 2D unstructured grids.
- Practical session on WHETGEO-2D on some pre-prepared cases
- Theory of radiation energy budget
- Practical session on computing the radiation energy budget
Day four is dedicated to the LysGEO model, evaporation and transpiration modelling and their coupling with R2.
- Evapotranspiration theory and equations in the Prospero model
- Use of GEOframe - ET tools practices
- LysGEO theory
- Practical session on LysGEO:
- Comparison between potential ET and actual ET
- Set different stress factors
- Introducing vegetation traits
The specific documentation regards papers and thesis written on the GEOframe components used in this School. Other literature, of general interest, is provided within the presentations given during the course. Practical documentation for any of the tasks is provided by means of Jupyter Notebooks, of which the general ones are reported below.
Some essential about the Object Modelling System
- Bottazzi, M, Ph.D. Thesis
- David, O., Ascough II, J. C., Lloyd, W., Green, T. R., Rojas, K. W., Leavesley, G. H., & Ahuja, L. R. (2013). A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The Object Modeling System. Environmental Modelling & Software, 39, 201-213.
- Tubini, N., Ph.D. Thesis (available soon)
- Bottazzi, M., Bancheri, M., Mobilia, M., Bertoldi, G., Longobardi, A., & Rigon, R. (2021). Comparing Evapotranspiration Estimates from the GEOframe-Prospero Model with Penman–Monteith and Priestley-Taylor Approaches under Different Climate Conditions. Water, 13(9), 1221.
- Tubini, Niccolò, and Riccardo Rigon. 2021. “Implementing the Water, HEat and Transport Model in GEOframe WHETGEO-1D v.1.0: Algorithms, Informatics, Design Patterns, Open Science Features, and 1D Deployment.” https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2021-163.
Monday, August 16, 2021
Karsts exist and cover approximately 15% of the Earth surface. Therefore it can happen very easily that in your hydrological analysis you across a Karst catchment. A general knowledge of karst environment can be gained by reading the White, 2002 paper but, online you can find also the book by Ford and Williamson, 2007.They are quite comprehensive readings, not necessarily focused on the hydrology of the karst systems and how they can be modeled.
White (2000) propose a conceptual map of karst hydrology that is better represented later in Hartmann et al., Figure 4 (see below).
Precipitation falling into a karstic system can be divided into:
- Allogenic recharge: precipitation that falls on non-carbonatic portion of the catchment and enter the carbonate aquifer to the swallets
- Disperse-diffuse infiltration directly happening on the karst surface and from there through the soil or the fractures
- Internal runoff, falling into sinkholes drains
- Flow from perched aquifers. Rainfall is collected by there aquifer and subsequently captured by vertical shaft or widen fractures in the vadose zone.
Wednesday, August 11, 2021
In the last post, In the last post, moved by the necessity to compare time series, I browsed literature and my library of papers to find solutions to my needs (essentially I tried to understand if two time series are related by a time lag). In the search I found other things and my literature grew beyond the original scope. One direction that actually I had frequented previously was the one of distinguishing causal connections beyond just correlations. In my previous searches, I has been fascinated by the work by Judea Pearl and part of the findings inherited from his work. The theory of Pearl has been expressed in various part, including the 2000 paper and some books, that you can find in the references. His teachings were directly absorbed by Hannart and Noveau, themselves good statisticians working in climatology, who produced some papers (2016, 2017) using Judea's theory and notation.
The idea can be generalized fro two to multiple time series, as Eichler (2013) actually shows. Eichler actually is know to have produced such analysis in 2003. A trend of more recent paper on the topic are represented by Jacob Runge (GS) work , who also have the merit to have implemented and shared his TiGraMITe package. He also has got a prestigious ERC research program on this topic called Causal Earth. On the concepts he wants to develop in the ERC, he gave talks and produced may interesting papers, among those one in Nature and a second on in Science affiliated Journal (see below)
In investigating hydrological quantities, one interesting issue is to understand if two time series are correlated and especially if the correlation comes with a lag time, and, in case which is this lag time. This is nothing different than in many other analysis and, in fact the tools developed are ubiquitous in science. Looking for the how to correlate rainfall and discharges I stumbled in this ready-made post, "Four ways to quantify synchrony between time series data" by Jin Hyun Cheong, PhD.
Tuesday, August 10, 2021
If you want to know an interesting story, go and see what is TeX and why it was produced by Donald Knuth. It is a typesetting system with a language behind it, and the way most scientists who use mathematical formulas, write their paper (and equations). Actually, most of us use LaTeX the Leslie Lamport TeX, which is usually customized to obtain the desired layout by many journals. Native digital used to WYSIWYG can find strange the way it works but after a little practice, no one can really avoid to use it for formulas.
- Learning LaTeX in 30 minutes (by Overleaf, the platform we used for LaTeX shared documents)
- The not-so-short-introduction to LaTeX
- And "More Math to LaTeX" which focuses to write formulas
- The LaTeX wikibook that could serve as a Reference book