Friday, September 28, 2012

My Past Research on Shallow Landslide and Mass Flow Triggering

The role of hydrology in triggering mass movements was initially confronted with an implementation of the theories of Montgomery and Dietrich [1994] (MD), and the case of instability caused by surface runoff [A21, A26, A27].  The study then continued with the analysis of transient phenomena, that is the instabilities caused by the propagation of pressure waves in the unsaturated medium  [A31, A32], according to the theory by Iverson [2000] (I), and integrating  the two, MD1994 and I2000, views even in the case of rainfall of varying intensity [A21, J23].
Then, the simplified approach  (important in as so much as it highlighted some qualitative aspects of infiltration in the hillslopes) was supplanted by the use of the GEOtop model for the continual simulation of hydrological variables [A38, J26], and transient effects, within a minimal set of simplifications.  The use of GEOtop has allowed for the separation of the hydrological part, effectively modeled by GEOtop, and the geotechnical part, contained in the GEOtop-FS model [J26].  Particularly, the latter of these was the subject of a probabilistic treatment that introduced uncertainties into the main geotechnical parameters  [J26].
The paper [J26], and the thesis of Silvia Simoni introduced a systematic approach to the identification of areas of instability that made full use of the potential of on-site geophysical measurement campaigns and the a priori characterization of geotechnical properties of the soil in the laboratory, without using back analyses for the calibration of parameters as is generally done by simplified models.  The IRASMOS Reports [rep06, rep07 and rep08] represent a summary of the literature available on this subject which has been eventually refined in [rep09].

The most recent work  has been focused on trying to understand the dynamics of subsurface flow  in  by means of virtual experiments [A43] with GEOtop, and in more conceptualized terms to explicit the role of the variability of depth of soil [J33, J35, thesis of Cristiano Lanni]  with the model denominated CI-SLAM.  The result is the introduction of the concept of "hydrological connectivity" of the hillslopes, which is realized when a perched water table forms that covers the whole basin.  The connectivity concept bridged the gap between hillslope hydrology and basin hydrology, and has also consequences important for hillslopes' stability [J37]. In fact these concepts allows a better statistical identification of landslide areas, than previous similar models.  [J35] also contains a preliminary attempt to use the theories of self-organizing criticality in the context of instability propagation, which, evidently, heralds the actual landslide itself.

Paper [J46] faces the issues related to the choice of a certain parameterisation of the soil retention curves and analyses their relation to hillslope stability. It uses a new theory that uses double porosity, and estimates the stability with the use of the new theories by Lu, Likos and Godt.


In English:

[ J23] - D’Odorico, P., Fagherazzi G., Rigon R. Potential for landsliding: Dependenceon hyetograph characteristics J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, No. F1, F01007 10.1029/2004JF000127 10 February 2005

[J26] Simoni, S., F. Zanotti, G. Bertoldi and R. Rigon, Modelling the probability ofoccurrence of shallow landslides and channelized debris flows using GEOtop-FS, Hydrol. Process. 22, 532–545, 2008, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6886

[J33] - Lanni, C.; McDonnell, J. J.; Rigon, R., On the relative role of upslope anddownslope topography for describing water flow path and storage dynamics:a theoretical analysis, Hydrological Processes Volume: 25 Issue: 25 Pages: 3909-3923, DEC 15 2011, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8263

[J35] - Lanni C., J. McDonnell JJ, Hopp L., Rigon R., "Simulated effect of soil depthand bedrock topography on near-surface hydrologic response and slope stability" in EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, v. 2012, (In press). - URL: . - DOI: 10.1002/esp.3267

[J37] Lanni C., Borga M., Rigon R., and Tarolli P., Modelling catchment-scale shallowlandslide occurrence by means of a subsurface flow path connectivity index, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 4101-4134, (in press at HESS)

[A31] - E. Cordano, P., Bartolini, Rigon R. A flexible numerical approach to solving a generalized Richards’ equation problem and some applications, 2004

[rep06]- Rigon R., Rickenmann D., Catalogue of causes and triggering thresholds (Ed), IRASMOS EU Project Deliverable 1.1, 2007

[rep07] - Rigon R. (Ed), State-of-the-art models: their transferability and model application, IRASMOS EU ProjectDeliverable 1.2, 2007

[rep08] - R. Rigon, State of the art of prediction techniques, IRASMOS EU Project Deliverable 1.3, 2007

[rep09] - R.Rigon, Franceschi, S., Monacelli, G., and Formetta, G., The triggering of landslides and debris flows and their mapping, Danube Flood Risk EU Project, 2012

[J46] - Ciervo F. ,  Casini F. , Papa M.N. ,  Rigon R., Some remarks on bimodality effects of the hydraulic properties on shear strength of unsaturated soils, Vadose Zone Hydrology, published electronically, doi:10.2136/vzj2014.10.0152, 2015

In Italian:

[A21] - D’Odorico, P., Fagherazzi S., Rigon R. Frane superficiali e idrologia deiversanti: Un possibile metodo di indagine. Atti del XXVIII Convegno di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche, vol. V, pp.177-184, 2002

[A26] - Tiso, C., Bertoldi G. and R. Rigon. Il modello Geotop-SF per la determinazione dell’nnesco di fenomeni di franamento e di colata. Atti del Convegno Iterpraevent 2004, Riva del Garda, 24-28 Maggio 2004

[A27] - Rigon, R., A. Cozzini, S. Pisoni, G. Bertoldi e A. Armanini. A new simple method for the determination of the triggering of debris flows. Atti del Convegno Interpraevent 2004, Riva del Garda, 24-28 Maggio 2004

[A32] - Cordano, E., Panciera R., Rigon R., Bartolini P. Sulla soluzione diffusiva dell’equazione di Richards. Atti del XXIX Convegno di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche, Settembre 2004

[A43] Lanni C., Cordano E., Rigon R., Tarantino A., Analysis of the effect of normaland lateral subsurface water flow on the triggering of shallow landslides witha distributed hydrological model. in from geomorphology mapping to dynamic modelling, Strasbourg: CERG, 2009. Atti di: A Tribute to Prof. Dr. Theo van ASCH, Strasbourg, 6th-7th February 2009

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