I came to across Judea Pearl book: Causality: models, reasoning and inference in the search for understanding the subtleties of the Bayesian approach to statistics (and statistics in general). I am still studying, and trying hard to understand how his findings can improve my approach to research in Hydrology. I think that this Turing Prize he got was well deserved, and I did this post for others to join the list of admirers of his work.
In his site, videos, tutorial and other good food for thinking, and "Causal Inference in Statistics: An Overview", Statistics Surveys 3 (2009): 96--146 [Free PDF], a must read for whom interested.^1
^1 For who captured by his work, it could be interesting to give a look to the TETRAD Project.