## Thursday, February 1, 2024

### Hydrology 2024

The Course of Hydrology 2024 will be 90% similar to last year class with minor modifications.  Indication of tools used etc can be found at the 2023 Index (3 minutes reading). Here you'll find the material of the classes including slides, old and new videos. Hydrology is an exciting field since water is so important for life and human activities. Here a  brief introduction from a National Geographics post

Companion of this post il the laboratory page on which you find material for your exercises.

Classes and related material

You can find:
• Storyboards is a summary, usually in Italian, of the lecture
• Whiteboard is an explanation of a particular topic made on the whiteboard (using Notability on the iPad)
• Slides are commented in English
• Videos are available to comment the slides. They are usually recorded during the lectures with no editing at all (which would be too much time expensive). 2024 Videos are uploaded to a Vimeo Showcase that can be found here
• Additional  information (only for the brave or the curious) and references are in italics

19 Febbraio 2024 - - Introduction to the course and to hydrology
Complementary References
2023-02-20 - Ground based Precipitations and their statistics Separation snow-rainfall - measure of precipitation

In this part of the class we describe where it rains and how much it rains using statistical concept. One important objective is to understand what are the extreme precipitations for their importance in engineering.
2024-02-26 - 2024-02-27  - Statistics of extreme precipitations

Some reviews on statistics - Return Period
Extreme precipitations  (Storyboard2020)
Distributions Storyboard2020

Determination of Gumbel's parameters
Extreme precipitations  II
2024-03-05 -Beyond Gumbel
A summary about the extreme precipitation estimations (Whiteboard)

Water in soil and aquifers
(Storyboard2020)
Once precipitations arrive to the ground surface they either infiltrate or generate runoff. We first state how they infiltrate and, actually how water behave in the soil and in the ground. We talk about the complexity of the Earth surface that contains life and call it, the Critical Zone. To study infiltration we introduce the Darcy and Richards equations of which we explain the characteristics.

- The Richardson-Richards equation  (Storyboard 2020)
2024-04-15

Runoff Generation and propagation (Summary 2020)

Once the rainfall gains the terrain, it can infiltrate or producing runoff. In the next we discuss the main mechanisms that produce runoff.
Q&A - Runoff - Runoff 2022

2024-04-22

Runoff moves on the surface of the terrain according to the de Saint-Venant equation. In the following the equation is derived in the 1D case.

Evaporation generalities (Storyboard2020)

A consistent part of root zone and surface water evaporates and returns to the atmosphere to eventually form clouds and precipitation again. The process follows quite complicate routes and is different when happening from liquid surfaces, soil or vegetation (and BTW animals).  In this group of lectures we try to figure out the physical mechanisms that act in the process and give some hint on methods to estimate evaporation and transpiration with physically based models.
2024-04-23
Evaporation and Transpiration Formulas
2024-04-29
2024-04-30  - After all radiation moves it all