It is self-explanatory, I guess. First minutes are a joke.

My reflections and notes about hydrology and being a hydrologist in academia. The daily evolution of my work. Especially for my students, but also for anyone with the patience to read them.

## Tuesday, February 23, 2021

## Monday, February 22, 2021

### The Hydrology Class 2021: the lab

Go to the Introduction

Go to the Software installation page

Go to the Foreseen Schedule

**2021-03-04**

*Introduction to working with Jupyter and Notebooks*

- A little introduction to Jupyter Notebook by Concetta D'Amato (YouTube2020, Data).
- Exercise with Python
- Explorative data analysis and Simple statistics with Python's Pandas (YouTubeLive 2019)
- Reading a CSV file with PANDAS (Vimeo2021, YouTubeLive 2019, YouTubeVideo2020)

**2021-03-11**

*Explorations with the Notebooks and Python*

- Exploration of the Gaussian Distribution
- Reading and treating a rainfall time series

**2021-04-27**

*-*

**Estimation of the intensity-duration-frequency curves with Python**

*With this class we start the determination of the rainfall extremes in a point. For obtaining this we make use of the PANDAS and the Matplotlib libraries of Python (3.*). The determination of the extremes is a necessary step in any engineering project that involves water flows. Constructions like sewage systems, dams, levees, all require the knowledge of the expected precipitation with an assigned return period.*

*Do not forget to have the data of*Pluviometria Paperopoli ready.

- Moments method
- The Notebook for the Moments Method
- Introduction (Vimeo2021)
- Implementing the Moments method within a Notebook (Vimeo 2021)
- The Notebook built in class
- Use moments (Vimeo2020 - Getting the parameter with the moments methods)
- Vimeo2020 - Plotting the curves and the data
- (2020) Jupyter Notebook about previous topic cleaned and with problems solved

**2021-04-29**

**2021-05-03**-

**Estimation of the intensity-duration-frequency curves with Python - II**

- Moments (last part)
- The Notebook For the Maximum Likelihood
- Use maximum likelihood (YouTubeLive2019, Vimeo2020,Vimeo2021)
- The Notebook for the Minimum squares
- Use Minimum squares (YouTubeLive2019, Vimeo2020,Vimeo 2021)

**2020 -05-06**

- The Notebook with Pearsons test
- Pearson's Tests (YouTubeLive2019, Vimeo2020 Part I,YouTube2020 Part II, Vimeo 2021 Part I, Part II )
- The Notebook with the Final estimation of the IDF curves
- Estimating the intensity-duration-frequency curves (YouTubeLive2019, YouTubeLive2020-I,YouTubeLive2020-II, Vimeo 2021)
- Some extras hints for your Notebooks
- How to import map and images in Jupyter
- A template for the Notebook of precipitation maxima

**Introduction to the GEOframe/OMS3 system**

*Geoframe is a system for doing hydrology by computer. It provides the components to model all the compartments of the hydrological cycle with tools that follow various modelling philosophies. The main idea it deploys is that these components can be joined at run time with a scripting language to provide "modelling solutions". During this course we explore some possibilities it offers.*

- Storyboard of the class
- Introduction to the Object Modelling System (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The Working Environment (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The .sim files (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The main features of the Console (YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- Further examples and details

**2021-05-11 - Estimating the infiltration with WHETGEO 1D**

*To model infiltration we use a 1D implementation of the Richards equation called WHETGEO, an acronym which stands for Water, HEat and Transport in GEOframe. These classes introduces the simulations with WHETGEO step by step*

- The example project (to be dowloaded by students)
- Definition and Creation of the 1D Grid (Vimeo2021)
- Jupyter Notebook with explanations (in video)

**2021-05-13**

- How to create the 1D grid in practice (Vimeo2021)
- How to create an OMS-formatted-csv-file (Vimeo2021)
- Running the code (Vimeo2021)
- In practice using the OMS3 console (Vimeo2021)
- Examining the results (Vimeo2021)
- A series of Notebooks with planned simulations for your inspiration (please pay attention that the environment geoframe_rossano already contains some of the scripts that needed to be uploaded. The Notebooks use an obsolete version of the simulations though)

**2021-05-20 - Modelling Evapotranspiration**

*The third part of the lab regards the simulation of evaporation and transpiration. Three models are used, Priestley-Taylor, Penman-Monteith-FAO and the Prospero model.*

- Priestley-Taylor, (Vimeo 2021, Executing the Notebook)
- Penman-Montheith, (Vimeo 2021, Executing the Notebook)
- GEOframe Prospero, (Vimeo2021, Executing the Notebook)
- Progetto OMS ET

**2021-05-27 - Modelling Radiation (in practice)**

## Sunday, February 21, 2021

### The Hydrological Modelling Class: The lab

Go to:

- Introduction
- Software Used
- The Foreseen Schedule
- The lab (you are already here)
- The Webinars

**2021-02-22**- Installations - For the Installation go to this GEOframe page and install all what required.

**2021-03-15 - Some elaboration with the Horton Machine**

- The Horton Machine 0.10 can be downloaded here.
- Test case
- A video (2021) that explains quickly what to download and address to the proper contents.
- Using the Horton Machine toolbox, Part I

**2021-03-22 - Using The Horton Machine Toolbox**- Part II (Vimeo2021)

**2021-03-29 - Using The Horton Machine Toolbox**- Part III (Vimeo 2021)

**2021-04-30 - Nera catchment**

**DEM data**- Python Notebook to visualize basins. Warning it requires some libraries like rasterio that are not at present inserted in the geoframe_rossano environment.

**2021-05-03 - QGIS & Other Info**

**A little about GIS**- Brief introduction to GIS (Zoom2020 , Vimeo2021, PDF)
- Raster in QGIS (Vimeo2021)
- How to create a shapefile with QGIS (Vimeo2021)
- Files etc
- Old material
- QGIS (Zoom2020 Part I, Zoom2020 Part II, PDF)
- Material for QGIS (QGIS_introduction.zip)
- Extra notes on GIS not addressed in class( PDF I, PDF II
**Time series**- Debate on data ( Zoom2020)
- Handle time series (Zoom2020)
- Material on time series (TimeSeries.zip)
- Discharge notebook

**For who has never seen OMS and GEOframe: an i**

**ntroduction to the GEOframe/OMS3 system**

- Storyboard of the class
- Introduction to the Object Modelling System (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The Working Environment (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The .sim files (The manual chapter here, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- The main features of the Console (YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)
- Further examples and details

**2021-05-07 - Working on the Nera Catchment**

*Today we will work on the morphology of the Nera Catchment. We will use it for our simulations afterwords (we chose it because we have enough data to do a decent job). Therefore everybody will be asked to repeat the operations already illustrated in the classes of 15,22 and 29 of March but on a different catchment*

- The larger DEM containing the Nera Catchment
- The Hydrometric stations shapefiles
- Elaborations on the Nera Catchment (Vimeo 2021 - part I, part II)

**2021-05-10 - Nera files**

- The Nera Project by Shima Azimi (
*This is the OMS3 project generated by Shima. You can generate your project by simply copying it and cleaning from the various specific files. The great of this is that you can redistribute executable, data, outputs and the scripts that drive the simulations all together to everybody with almost no effort)* - The Jupyter Notebook for creating the .sim file in the appropriate folders (Vimeo 2021)

**2021-05-14 - Nera files**

- Running the Nera Example (Vimeo2021)
- Explanation of the graph.sim file (Vimeo2021)
- Same topic, more detailed but on a different catchment from the GWS2021 (VimeoGWS2021)
- Another view of the Net3 graph (for sending in parallel various simulations with the Prospero ET model)
- Explanation of the contents of a single .sim of ERM (Vimeo2021)

*For more details see also:*

**2021-05-17 - Dealing with time series**

- Data for the class (the zip file contains data and Jupyter Notebooks)
- What is in the Jupyter Notebooks (Vimeo2021)
- The OMS3 csv file (Vimeo2021)
- Creation of an OMS3 csv file with Python (Vimeo2021)

**2021-05-21 - Dealing with time series II**

- Getting the data (from Meteo Trentino) and checking the data integrity (Vimeo2021)
- Getting the data (from Ufficio Idrografico di Bolzano). Just the Notebooks here.
- Other data for the class and even other data (the zip file contains data and Jupyter Notebooks)
- Checking the data from the hydrological point of view (Vimeo2021)

**2021-05-24 - Interpolation of data**

*Interpolation of ground station data is a necessary step for the simulations. The method used is the Kriging (see the lectures given March 1 and March 5 2021). Some issues can be risen when data has to be positive definite, like in the case of rainfall. To avoid them, the data can be transformed in such a way they obey a normal distribution. This technique is called Normal score and it is shown below. The example of interpolation is performed by using some available data that should be downloaded.*

- The Normal Score (Vimeo 2021)
- The Example (alternative download of the data) (Vimeo2021)
- Again on Kriging (Vimeo2021)
- Leave One Out (Vimeo2021)

**2021-05-31 - Radiation and Evaporation**

*When estimating the discharges with GEOframe-ERM, we need to estimate the potential evapotranspiration. This, in turn, requires the estimation of radiation. In these lectures we remind how to do it.*

**2021-06 - A last step into the Embedded Reservoirs Modelling solution (ERM)**

*Previously we just used a prepared case with ERM on Nera catchment. Here we clarify some of the missing passages.*

- How to create the sim files for the ERM simulations using the distributed environment Net3 (Vimeo2021)

## Thursday, February 11, 2021

### The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - The Foreseen Schedule

Go to:

- Introduction
- Software used
- The Foreseen Schedule (you are already here)
- The lab
- The Webinars

**Foreseen Schedule (up to Easter)**

**(boldface dates are those with definitive material,**I or directly written in Italian in for Italian, unspecified for English. All slides are in English

**)**

**To understand better what is below:**

- A
**storyboard**is a summary, usually in Italian, of the lecture - A
**whiteboard**is an explanation of a particular topic made on the whiteboard (using Notability on the iPad) usually in Italian **Slides**are commented in English (since 2021)*Additional information**(only for the brave or the curious)*and references are in italics

**2021-02-22 - I**- Syllabus - Introduction 2 Hydrological Modelling

*Here I introduced the class. Its learning by doing philosophy (altered by the necessity due to COVID-19 times that impose to do first the all the theoretical parts and subsequently all the practical parts hoping that they can be done in presence).*

- The real start (Vimeo 2021)
- Prerequistes (Vimeo 2021)
- The Topics (from a general point of view) (Vimeo Video 2020, Vimeo 2021)
- Methods (Vimeo2021)
- How you will be graded (Vimeo 2021)
- Catchments and related issues
- Please give a brief look here at the poll about the Prerequisites.

**2021-02-22 - II**- Discussion of previous lesson topics. Summary of the lecture in Italian. (This will be always done, each lesson, but for now on omitted). The rational of introducing these concepts is that catchments are spatially extended and in this course we are interested to deal with catchments hydrology.

*In this first part we deal with the geometrical (differential) characteristics of the topography. Elevations, slopes, curvatures. They will be necessary later to extract the river network and the parts of a catchment.*

- Introduction to Geomorphometry I (Storyboard 2020 della lezione, I):
- A little of vocabulary (Vimeo 2021)
- DEMs sources (from Wikipedia). Slide. Local and other sources of data:
- Provincia di Trento
- Provincia di Bolzano
- Geoportale Nazionale
- A short Vimeo Video (2021)
- A short YouTubeVideo (2020)
- The basics of DEM analysis (Vimeo2021, YouTube video 2019,YouTube2020, Sintesi in Italiano 2020)

**2021-02-26 - Geomorphometry - II**

*In this class we define what the drainage directions are and how they are computed in the case of DEMs (a topography discretized over a regular grid). From drainage directions are determined the total contributing areas in each point of a DEM. These two characteristics are eventually used to determine the channels head and extract the river network*

**.**In turn, the extraction of the channel network allows for the extraction of hillslope and a first definition of the Hydrologic Response Units (HRU).- Hydrogeomorphology: the derived quantities, drainage directions and contributing areas (Vimeo2021, YouTube video 2019,YouTube2020, Sintesi in Italiano 2020)
- On the estimation of tangential stresses in a curved topography (Whiteboard 2020)
- References for who wants to go deeper
- Peckham, R. J., and G. Jordan. 2007.
. Edited by Robert Joseph Peckham and Gyozo Jordan. New York: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Lecture Notes In Geoinformation and Cartography.*Digital Terrain Modelling*: Development and Applications in a Policy Support Environment - A Storyboard Italian regarding the geomorphic laws
- Where do channels begin: Extracting channels and hillslope (Vimeo2021, YouTubeVideo 2020 b, Sintesi in Italiano 2020)
- Old but useful material: extracting the hillslope (YouTube Video 2019,YouTube2020)
- A brief overview about geomorphic laws regarding the river networks and catchments. (Vimeo 2021)
- Additional information and references
*Part of the above but presented in a different way. Topological classification of catchments elements:**Horton-Strahler Ordering (Whiteboard2020);**Pfafstetter (Whiteboard2020; an alternative presentation here) and**other ordering schemes (Whiteboard 2020 here).**Rigon, Riccardo, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe, Amos Maritan, Achille Giacometti, David G. Tarboton, and Andrea Rinaldo. 1996. “On Hack’s Law.” Water Resources Research 32 (11): 3367–74.**Detecting the human landscape (please try to read and summarize the main concepts):**Cao, Wenfang, Giulia Sofia, and Paolo Tarolli. 2020. “Geomorphometric Characterisation of Natural and Anthropogenic Land Covers.” Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 7 (1): 2.**Other references:**Older classes in Italian**Geomorphology with References**Various information from the AboutHydrology Blog**R.Rigon, E. Ghesla, C. Tiso and A. Cozzini, The Horton Machine, pg. viii, 136, ISBN 10:88-8443-147-6, University of Trento, 2006**W. Abera, A. Antonello, S. Franceschi, G. Formetta, R Rigon , "The uDig Spatial Toolbox for hydro-geomorphic analysis" in Geomorphological Techniques, v. 4, n. 1 (2014), p. 1-19*

**2021-03-01**-

**Interpolations**

*This lecture, assuming that now you have at least the concepts of what a catchment is and theoretically you know how to extract it and subdivide it in parts, deals with the data to feed catchments hydrology models. Because catchments have a spatial distribution, then also the driving data must be distributed. We need therefore methods of interpolation.*

- Hydrological data (Storyboard2020 in Italian)
- To which data are we interested in and where can we find them ? (This one is a storyboard in English)
- Ground data and their interpolation (Vimeo 2021, Zoom2020)
- Thiessen Polygons (Storyboard2020 in Italian)
- Inverse distance Weighting (Storyboard 2020 in Italian)
- Introduction to Kriging Theory:
- Summary (Vimeo 2021)
- Building the system to solve ( Storyboard 2020), the Kriging's equations (YouTube2019, Vimeo 2021, YouTube2020, Zoom2020)
- Variography (Storyboard 2020, YouTube video 2019, YouTubeVideo2020, YouTube2020b, Vimeo 2021)

**2021-03-05 - Interpolations part II.**

*In this class we try to understand how to estimate the errors over the estimates. Besides we introduce a method (the Normal Score) to avoid to obtain negative values when positive interpolated values are required.*

- Catching the errors of estimates (Storyboard2020 in Italian, Zoom2020)
- Flow chart and Various types of Kriging (Storyboard in Italian 2020, Zoom2020)
- The Normal score
*Additional material:**References:**Marialaura Bancheri, Francesco Serafin, Michele Bottazzi, Wuletawu Abera, Giuseppe Formetta, and Riccardo Rigon, The design, deployment, and testing of kriging models in GEOframe with SIK-0.9.8, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2189–2207, 2018 https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2189-2018**AndrÃ s Bardossy, Introduction to Geostatistics, year unknown.**Goovaerts, P. (1997). Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation (pp. 1–488). New York : Oxford University Press.**P.K. Kitanidis, Introduction to GEOstatistics, 1997 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511626166**Mitas, Lubos, and Helena Mitasova. 1999. “Spatial Interpolation.” Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Management and Applications 1 (2). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.224.5959&rep=rep1&t*ype=pdf.- G. Raspa, Dispense di Geostatistica Applicata, UniversitÃ di Roma 3, 2010

**- Spatial Interpolation**

**2021-03-08**- Hydrological Models. This is a class about hydrological models, so what are they ?

*The title is self-explanatory. A theoretical approach to modelling is necessary because we have to frame properly our action when we jump from the laws of physics to the laws of hydrology. Making hydrology we do not have to forget physics but for getting usable models we have to do appropriate simplifications and distorsions. The type of model we will use in the course are those in the tradition are called lumped models. Here we also introduce a graphical tool to represent these models.*

- Today's storyboard (here in Italian)
- What are models (in Science) (Vimeo2021)
- Hydrological models (Vimeo2021)
*Old versions: What are models in Hydrology (YouTube2020, Zoom2020-I, A summary I, English version here)*- Integral Distributed Model or Hydrological Dynamical Systems, HDSys (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021 )
- The representation of Hydrological Dynamical System (Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
*Further readings: a blogpost from EGU*

**2021-03-12 - Linear Models for HRUs**

*Once we have grasped the main general (and generic) ideas, we try to draw the simplest systems. They turn out to be analytically solvable, and we derive their solutions carefully. From the group of linear systems springs out the Nash model, whose derivation is performed. Obviously, it remains the problem to understand how much the models can describe "reality". However, this an issue we leave for future investigations.*

- The very simplest linear system (Vimeo2021)
- Derivation of the solution of the linear reservoir (Whiteboard2021)
- Same derivation as above but from a different source and treated in a general way
- Getting new features to the linear systems (Vimeo2021)
- The Nash model (Vimeo2021)
- Derivation of the Nash hydrograph (Whiteboard 2021)

**2021-03- 14 - A little more on the IUH and looking at the variety of HDSys models**

*We introduced previously without very much digging into it the concept of Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph. Here we explain more deeply its properties, Then we observe that there are issues related to the partition of fluxes and we discuss some simple models for obtaining them. Not rocket science here. The concept that we need those tools is more important than the tools themselves. We also observe that linearity is not satisfactory and we give a reference to many non linear models. Finally we discuss an implementation of some of the discussed concepts in the System GEOframe.*

- The storyboard
- The IUH classic (Vimeo2021)
- The issue of runoff generation,
- MaRRmot survey of models (Vimeo2021)

**2021-03-19**

**2021-03-22**

- A summary of previous lectures
- Simplified snow models
**A little about models calibration**

2021-03-26 - A final view on Hydrological Dynamical Systems and their application to catchments.

2021-03-26 - A final view on Hydrological Dynamical Systems and their application to catchments.

- Hypothesis testing in Hydrological Modelling with HDSys (At the whiteboard)

*Equations for disease spreading (Out of schedule)*

*An unexpected candid way (for naive people like me) to model Covid-19 spreading (Whiteboard2020, Zoom2020)**But look how it is a more informed model*s.*Examples of Applications:*

**2021-03-26 - Travel Time, Residence Time and Response Time**

- Here below we started a little series of lectures about a statistical way of seeing water movements in catchments. This view has a long history but recently had a closure with the work of Rinaldo, Botter and coworkers. Here it is presented an alternative vie to their concepts. Some passages could be of some difficulty but the gain in understanding the processes of fluxes formation at catchment scale is, in my view, of great value and deserves some effort. The way of thinking is the following: a) the overall catchments fluxes are the sum of the movements of many small water volumes (molecules); b) the water of molecules can be seen through 3 distributions: the travel time distribution, the residence time distribution and the response time distributions; c) the relationships between these distributions are revealed; d) the relation of these distributions with the the treatment of the catchments made through ordinary differential equations is obtained through the definition of age ranked distributions; e) The theory this developed is a generalizations of the unit hydrograph theory.
- The view of the catchment as the statistics of elementary water volumes moving stochastically, a storyboard
- Travel Time, Residence Times (Vimeo 2021-Ita, Vimeo 2021-Eng)

**2021-03 - 29**

- Q&A - A student asks and I respond on travel times (in Italian)
- Q&A - Another session of explanations
- Klicker session on Travel times, Residence Time, etc. (List of questions and answers by students, Zoom2020)

2021-03-29 -

**After all radiation moves it all.**

- Radiation (YouTube 2017).
- The Sun (YouTube 2017)
- Stefan-Boltzmann law and radiation spectrum (YouTube 2017, Vimeo2021)
- Sun to Earth (YouTube 2017)
- Coping with latitude and longitude (YouTube 2017,Vimeo2021)
- Atmospheric Absorptions (YouTube 2017,Vimeo2021)
- Clouds (YouTube 2017,Vimeo2021)
- Coping with terrain (YouTube 2017,Vimeo2021)
- Long wave radiation (YouTube 2017, Vimeo2021)
- Table of symbols
- Readings:
- Corripio, J. G. (2002). Modelling the energy balance of high altitude glacierised basins in the Central Andes. Ph.D Dissertation, 1–175.
- Corripio, J. G. (2003). Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainous terrain. Int. J. Geographical Information Science, 17(1), 1–23.
- Formetta, G., Rigon, R., ChÃ¡vez, J. L., & David O. (2013). Modeling shortwave solar radiation using the JGrass-NewAge system. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(4), 915–928. http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-915-2013
- Formetta, G., Bancheri, M., David, O., & Rigon, R. (2016). Performance of site-specific parameterizations of longwave radiation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20(11), 4641–4654. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-4641-2016
- Various material from the AboutHydrology blog
- Q&A - Some questions on radiation, your answers and my comments.

### The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - Software

Go to:

- Introduction
- Software used (you are already here)
- The Foreseen Schedule
- The lab
- The Webinars

- Python 3.* within Jupyterlab for scripting, and in particular the numpy, scipy, matplotlib (also here) and pandas (also here).
- Part of the GEOframe system for the various simulations.
- For the terrain Analysis part the new tools of the Horton Machine will be used

All these resources are free, besides being open.

For installations requirements, please see the Installations Instructions:

**Material of the course (other than indexed here)**

The material of the course will be uploaded usually at this OSF site.

## Wednesday, February 10, 2021

### The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - Introduction And References

Index

Go to:

Introduction

**The Hydrological Modeling course aims to teach to simulate the hydrological cycle at various spatial scales in order to be able to adequately manage the water resource and to prevent the risk of floods. **The importance of these two issues is widely covered by the EU 2000/60 framework directives or "Water directive" and EU 2006/60, "Flood directive". Based on the hydrological knowledge acquired in the course of Hydrology at the Bachelor of Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, the hydrological processes, analyzed as punctual phenomena are extended to the water catchment areas.

**At the end of the course, a student must be able to independently model the flow rates, evaporation and transpiration in a river basin of various sizes, after having delineated it starting from digital terrain data.**Of course, the student will have to demonstrate that he has critically understood the concepts that underlie the hydrological modeling presented.

**lectures of the course will be held in English**, according to the methods already followed in the Numerical Modeling course (i.e. with summary in Italian at the beginning of the lesson, lessons in English, questions and explanations in Italian). The first part of the course, until on April 3, will be dedicated to the presentation and discussion of theoretical concepts. The lectures will be recorded and uploaded on the course's YouTube channel (or Vimeo). The lessons will cover 4 of the five hours per week. The fifth hour will be dedicated to the preparation of the data necessary for the projects to be completed in the second part of the course.

**GEOframe**hydrological system in order to get the hydrological water balance of the basin.

- Abera, W., G. Formetta, and L. Brocca. 2017. “Modeling the Water Budget of the Upper Blue Nile Basin Using the JGrass-NewAge Model System and Satellite Data.”
*Hydrology and Earth System Sciences*. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/517346/. - Abera, Wuletawu, Giuseppe Formetta, Marco Borga, and Riccardo Rigon. 2017. “Estimating the Water Budget Components and Their Variability in a Pre-Alpine Basin with JGrass-NewAGE.”
*Advances in Water Resources*104 (June): 37–54.

As general reference texts we recommend:

- Beven, K. - Raifall-runoff, the primer, ISBN 10: 047071459X, ISBN 13: 978047071459, Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
- Dingmann, L., Physical Hydrology, ISBN-13: 978-1478611189, ISBN-10: 1478611189, Third Edition, Waveland Press, 2015
- Lu, N. and Godt, J.W., Hillslope Hydrology and Stability, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13: 978-1107021068, ISBN-10: 11070210652010, 2013
- Bonan, G., Ecological Climatology, concepts and applications, ISBN-13: 978-1107619050, ISBN-10: 110761905X, 2016

These books represent a shareable review of the phenomena and hydrological modeling but the methods they present are not necessarily those used in the course. The course, cause of time constraints, presents a selected and limited perspective of the subject that the texts cited dissect from various points of view often complementary to the one of the course.

### The Hydrology Class 2021 - The Schedule

This post contains the foreseen schedule of the course. Material uploaded is subject to modifications prior to the schedule date. All the lectures will be to students present in blended format. Meaning that students can be either present or attend remotely. All of them will be recorded and uploaded to web.

**bold**are definitive. Topics in normal characters are still subject to modifications.

**2021-02-23 - Introduction to the course and to hydrology**

- Syllabus (Vimeo 2021);
- A very short introduction to hydrology (Vimeo2021, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020);
- Mass & Energy budgets (Vimeo2021, YouTube 2019,YouTube2020)

**2021-02-26 - Ground based Precipitations and their statistics Separation snow-rainfall - measure of precipitation**

*In this part of the class we describe where it rains and how much it rains using statistical concept. One important objective is to understand what are the extreme precipitations for their importance in engineering.*

- The storyboard of the lecture (on Vimeo)
- A general (old) overview (YouTube2019) - A general overview 2021 (Vimeo 2021, YouTube2020)
*(X) Separation rainfall-snowfall (optional)*- Statistics of ground precipitations (YouTube2019, YouTube2020, Vimeo 2021)

**2021-03-02 - Some reviews on statistics - Return Period**

- Whiteboard (2021) on statistics
- Whiteboard (2020) on Lognormal distribution
- Return period (Vimeo 2021, Zoom2020)
- On the difference among risk and hazard (rischio e pericolo) Whiteboard2021.

**2021-03-04 Extreme precipitations**(Storyboard2020)

- Moments method (YouTube2019, Vimeo2021)

**2021-03-09 Extreme precipitations II**

- Maximum likelihood (YouTube2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Minimi quadrati (YouTube2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Test di Pearsons/Chi square (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Summary (Whiteboard2021)

**2021-03-11 Extreme precipitations III**

- Generalised extreme value distribution (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Metastatistical Extreme Value (Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)

**2020-03- 16 - Water in soil and aquifers. Darcy-Buckingham. Hydraulic conductivity. Soil water retention curves (**Storyboard2020

**)**

*Once precipitations arrive to the ground surface they either infiltrate or generate runoff. We first state how they infiltrate and, actually how water behave in the soil and in the ground. We talk about the complexity of the Earth surface that contains life and call it, the Critical Zone. To study infiltration we introduce the Darcy and Richards equations of which we explain the characteristics.*

- Soils (Vimeo2021, YouTube 2017,YouTube2018,YouTube 2019)
- Texture and Structure of soils (Vimeo2021,YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.8
- Aquifers (YouTube 2019,Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.7
- Definitions (YouTube 2017,YouTube2018,YouTube 2019,Vimeo2021)

**2021-03-18**

- Darcy-Buckingham law (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018)
- Darcy (YouTube 2019, Vimeo 2021)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.1 and section 2.12
- Buckingham 2019 (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo 2021)

- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.2
- Soil Water RetentionCurves (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6

- Hydraulic Conductivity
- Conductivity in unsaturated soils (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Saturated conductivity (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.3 and section 2.4
*Further readings**Soil depth**Soil Water Retention Curves**The old post on soils**Preferential flow in hillslopes**Ning Lu's lectures on soil water*- Query and answers on previous material on quantitative soil water analysis

**(Storyboard 2020)2020 - 03- 23 - The Richards equation **

- Just the divergence Theorem (YouTube2018,YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Some clarifications about Richards equation on the Whiteboards (I and II)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6
- Solving Richards equation (YouTube2018, YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)

**2020 - 03- 25 - The Richards equation - II**

- Pedotransfer Functions - (YouTube2017,YouTube2019 I & II, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Richards 1D (YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Our attention on the interface sand-clay (Vimeo2021)
*(Optional) simplifications of Richards 1D (YouTube2017,YouTube2019)*- Further information:

- Macropores and Three-Dimensional effects on hillslope (YouTube2019,Vimeo2021)
- The groundwater equation (YouTube2019,Vimeo 2021)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater (Section 2.9 and section 2.11)

*Further Readings or views (optionals)*

**2020-04-30 - Runoff Generation and propagation**

**(**Summary 2020

**)**

*Once the rainfall gains the terrain, it can infiltrate or producing runoff. In the next we discuss the main mechanism to produce runoff.*

- Runoff Mechanisms (YouTube2019 I and II). (Zoom 2020,Vimeo2021)
- Simplified views of runoff (Hortonian runoff depends on the point, Dunnian runoff on the catchment, YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- A Whiteboard sull'indice topografico.

**- Runoff**

**2020-04-01 - The surface water propagation (**a brief Storyboard 2021)

*Runoff moves on the surface of the terrain according to the de Saint-Venant equation. In the following the equation is derived in the 1D case.*

**Evaporation generalities**

**(**Storyboard2020

**)**

*A consistent part of root zone and surface water evaporates and returns to the atmosphere to eventually form clouds and precipitation again. The process follows quite complicate routes and is different when happening from liquid surfaces, soil or vegetation (and BTW animals). In this group of lectures we try to figure out the physical mechanisms that act in the process and give some hint on methods to estimate evaporation and transpiration with physically based models.*

- Definitions (YouTube2018, YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Evaporation Thermodynamics
- Evaporation as Entropy growth (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Evaporation causes diffusion of water vapor (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
*Old Material:*(YouTube2018)- Turbulent transport of vapor (and other quantities): the Dalton law (YouTube2018, YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (cap. 2.2)
- Whiteboards:
- A short reminder (Evaporation as vapor transport and evaporation as phase transition)
- On the parametrization of turbulence
- And again on the logarithm profile

**2021-04-08**

- Evaporation as energy flux (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (chap. 2.3)
- Evaporation is water limited or energy limited (Budyko approach)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (chap. 2.1.0)
- Evaporation form soils (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (chap. 2.4.1-2.4.3)
- Transpiration (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Plants physiology and resistances to transpiration (supplemental material)
- Textbook M. Bottazzi (chap. 3.0-3.3)
- Various stuffs
- Answer to a student on displacement length and roughness length (Whiteboard2020)
- Some missing link about q(z0), the specific humidity at the evaporating surface (Storyboard2020)
- A little more of synthesis and a summary for what is below (Storyboard2020)

**Evaporation and Transpiration Formulas**

- Schymanski & Or derivation of Penman-Monteith equation (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (cap. 2.3.2-2.3.5)
- Soil Evaporation (reprise Zoom2020)
- *Simplification of the P-M solution (PM-FAO e Priestley-Taylor) (Zoom2020)
- From Leaves to Canopies (Zoom2020)
- Textbook M. Bottazzi (chap. 3.4)

## Tuesday, February 9, 2021

### The Hydrology Class 2021 - Software

There is no engineering without using models. During the class will be used various open source softwares and resources:

- Python 3.* within Jupyterlab for scripting, and in particular the numpy, scipy, matplotlib (also here) and pandas (also here).
- Part of the GEOframe system for the various simulations.

All these resources are free, besides being open.

For installations requirements, please see the Installations Instructions: