Monday, February 22, 2021

The Hydrology Class 2021: the lab

Go to the Introduction
Go to the Software installation page
Go to the Foreseen Schedule

For the installations Go to the Software installation page, anyway do not miss the occasion to listen 2 Concetta D'Amato introducing it to you in Italian on Thursday 25, 2021:
2021-03-04 Introduction to working with Jupyter and Notebooks
2021-03-11 Explorations with the Notebooks and Python
2021-04-27 - Estimation of  the intensity-duration-frequency curves with Python
With this class we start the determination of the rainfall extremes in a point. For obtaining this we make use of the PANDAS and the Matplotlib libraries of Python (3.*). The determination of the extremes is a necessary step in any engineering project that involves water flows. Constructions like sewage systems, dams, levees, all require the knowledge of the expected precipitation with an assigned return period.
Do not forget to have the data of  Pluviometria Paperopoli ready.
2021-05-03 Estimation of  the intensity-duration-frequency curves with Python - II
Introduction to the GEOframe/OMS3 system
Geoframe is a system for doing hydrology by computer. It provides the components to model all the compartments of the hydrological cycle with tools that follow various modelling philosophies. The main idea it deploys is that these components can be joined at run time with a scripting language to provide "modelling solutions". During this course we explore some possibilities it offers.

2021-05-11 - Estimating the infiltration with WHETGEO 1D
To model infiltration we use a 1D implementation of the Richards equation called WHETGEO, an acronym which stands for Water, HEat and Transport in GEOframe. These classes introduces the simulations with WHETGEO step by step

    • How to create the 1D grid in practice (Vimeo2021)
  • How to create an OMS-formatted-csv-file (Vimeo2021)
  • Running the code (Vimeo2021)
    • In practice using the OMS3 console (Vimeo2021)
  • Examining the results (Vimeo2021)
  • A series of Notebooks with planned simulations for your inspiration (please pay attention that the environment geoframe_rossano already contains some of the scripts that needed to be uploaded. The Notebooks use an obsolete version of the simulations though)
2021-05-20 - Modelling Evapotranspiration
The third part of the lab regards the simulation of evaporation and transpiration. Three models are used, Priestley-Taylor, Penman-Monteith-FAO and the Prospero model.
2021-05-27 - Modelling Radiation (in practice)

Sunday, February 21, 2021

The Hydrological Modelling Class: The lab

Go to:

2021-02-22 - Installations - For the Installation go to this GEOframe page and install all what required.
We are also going to install the Horton Machine toolbox

For Italian speakers, they can also give a look do not miss the occasion to listen to Concetta D'Amato introducing installations in Italian:

2021-03-15 - Some elaboration with the Horton Machine
2021-03-29 - Using The Horton Machine Toolbox - Part III (Vimeo 2021)
2021-04-30 - Nera catchment
  • DEM data
  • Python Notebook to visualize basins. Warning it requires some libraries like rasterio that are not at present inserted in the geoframe_rossano environment.
2021-05-03 - QGIS & Other Info 
For who has never seen OMS and GEOframe: an introduction to the GEOframe/OMS3 system
2021-05-07 - Working on the Nera Catchment
Today  we will work on the morphology of the Nera Catchment. We will use it for our simulations afterwords (we chose it because we have enough data to do a decent job). Therefore everybody will be asked to repeat the operations already illustrated in the classes of 15,22 and 29 of  March but  on a different catchment
2021-05-10 - Nera files
  • The Nera Project by Shima Azimi (This is the OMS3 project generated by Shima. You can generate your project by simply copying it and cleaning from the various specific files. The great of this is that you can redistribute executable, data, outputs and the scripts that drive the simulations all together to everybody with almost no effort)
  • The Jupyter Notebook for creating the .sim file in the appropriate folders (Vimeo 2021)
2021-05-14 - Nera files
For more details see also:
2021-05-17 - Dealing with time series
2021-05-21 - Dealing with time series II
2021-05-24 - Interpolation of  data
Interpolation of  ground station data is a necessary step for the simulations. The method used is the Kriging (see the lectures given March 1 and March 5 2021). Some issues can be risen when data has to be positive definite, like in the case of rainfall. To avoid them, the data can be transformed in such a way they obey a normal distribution. This technique is called Normal score and it is shown below. The example of interpolation is performed by using some available data that should be downloaded.
2021-05-31 - Radiation and Evaporation
When estimating the discharges with GEOframe-ERM,  we need to estimate the potential evapotranspiration. This, in turn, requires the estimation of radiation. In these lectures we remind how to do it.
2021-06 - A last step into the Embedded Reservoirs Modelling solution (ERM)
Previously we just used a prepared case with ERM on Nera catchment. Here we clarify some of the missing passages. 
  • How to create the sim files for the ERM simulations using the distributed environment Net3 (Vimeo2021)

Thursday, February 11, 2021

The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - The Foreseen Schedule


Go to:

 Foreseen Schedule (up to Easter)

(boldface dates are those with definitive material, I or directly written in Italian  in for Italian,  unspecified for English. All slides are in English)

To understand better what is below: 
  • A storyboard is a summary, usually in Italian, of the lecture
  • A whiteboard is an explanation of a particular topic made on the whiteboard (using Notability on the iPad) usually in Italian
  • Slides are commented in English (since 2021)
  • Additional  information (only for the brave or the curious)and references are in italics

2021-02-22 - I  - Syllabus - Introduction 2 Hydrological Modelling 

Here  I introduced the class. Its learning by doing philosophy (altered by the necessity due to COVID-19 times that impose to do first the all the theoretical parts and subsequently all the practical parts hoping that they can be done in presence). 

2021-02-22 - II - Discussion of previous lesson topics. Summary of the lecture in Italian. (This will be always done, each lesson, but for now on omitted). The rational of introducing these concepts  is that catchments are spatially extended and in this course we are interested to deal with catchments hydrology. 

In this first part we deal with the geometrical (differential) characteristics of the topography. Elevations, slopes, curvatures. They will be necessary later to extract the river network and the parts of a catchment.
2021-02-26 - Geomorphometry - II 

In this class we define what the drainage directions are and how they are computed in the case of DEMs (a topography discretized over a regular grid).  From drainage directions are determined the total contributing areas in each point of  a DEM. These two characteristics are eventually used to determine  the channels head and extract the river network. In turn, the extraction of the channel network allows for the extraction of hillslope and a first definition of  the Hydrologic Response Units (HRU). 

2021-03-01 Interpolations 
This lecture, assuming that now you have at least the concepts of what a catchment is and theoretically you know how to extract it and subdivide it in parts, deals with the data to feed catchments hydrology models. Because catchments have a spatial distribution, then also the driving data must be distributed. We need therefore methods of interpolation. 

2021-03-05 -  Interpolations part II. 

In this class we try to understand how to estimate the errors over the estimates. Besides we introduce a method (the Normal Score) to avoid to obtain negative values when positive interpolated values are required.

2021-03-08 - Hydrological Models. This is a class about hydrological models, so what are they ?

The title is self-explanatory. A theoretical approach to modelling is necessary because we have to frame properly our action when we jump from the laws of physics to the laws of  hydrology. Making hydrology we do not have to forget physics but for getting usable models we have to do appropriate simplifications and distorsions. The type of model we will use in the course are those in the tradition are called lumped models. Here we also introduce a graphical tool to represent these models.
2021-03-12 - Linear Models for HRUs

Once we have grasped the main general (and generic) ideas, we try to draw the simplest systems. They turn out to be analytically solvable, and we derive their solutions carefully. From the group of linear systems springs out the Nash model, whose derivation is performed.  Obviously, it remains the problem to understand how much the models can describe "reality". However, this an issue we leave for future investigations.
2021-03- 14 -  A little more on the IUH and looking at the variety of HDSys models

We introduced previously without very much digging into it the concept of Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph. Here we explain more deeply its properties, Then we observe that there are issues related to the partition of fluxes and we discuss some simple models for obtaining them. Not rocket science here. The concept that we need those tools is more important than the tools themselves. We also observe that linearity is not satisfactory and we give a reference to many non linear models. Finally we discuss an implementation of some of the discussed concepts in the System GEOframe. 
In this class we also did some elaboration on DEM for extracting features, please see the Lab Class at the same day.


2021-03-26 - A final view on Hydrological Dynamical Systems and their application to catchments.
Equations for disease spreading (Out of schedule)

2021-03-26 - Travel Time, Residence Time and Response Time
  • Here below we started a little series of lectures about a statistical way of seeing water movements in catchments. This view has a long history but recently had a closure with the work of Rinaldo, Botter and coworkers. Here it is presented an alternative vie to their concepts. Some passages could be of some difficulty but the gain in understanding the processes of fluxes formation at catchment scale is, in my view, of great value and deserves some effort.  The way of thinking is the following: a) the overall catchments fluxes are the sum of the movements of many small water volumes (molecules); b) the water of molecules can be seen through 3 distributions: the travel time distribution, the residence time distribution and the response time distributions; c) the relationships between these distributions are revealed; d) the relation of these distributions with the the treatment of the catchments made through ordinary differential equations is obtained through the definition of age ranked distributions; e) The theory this developed is a generalizations of the unit hydrograph theory. 
  • The view of the catchment as the statistics of elementary water volumes moving stochastically, a storyboard
  • Travel Time, Residence Times (Vimeo 2021-Ita, Vimeo 2021-Eng)

2021-03 - 29

2021-03-29 -  After all radiation moves it all.

The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - Software


Go to:

Software Used 

There is no engineering without using models. During the class will be used various open source softwares and resources:

All these resources are free, besides being open

For installations requirements, please see the Installations Instructions:

Material of the course (other than indexed here)

The material of the course will be uploaded usually at this OSF site.


Wednesday, February 10, 2021

The Hydrological Modelling Class 2021 - Introduction And References


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 The Hydrological Modeling course aims to teach to simulate the hydrological cycle at various spatial scales in order to be able to adequately manage the water resource and to prevent the risk of floods. The importance of these two issues is widely covered by the EU 2000/60 framework directives or "Water directive" and EU 2006/60, "Flood directive". Based on the hydrological knowledge acquired in the course of Hydrology at the Bachelor of Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, the hydrological processes, analyzed as punctual phenomena are extended to the water catchment areas. 

Precipitation is analyzed as a measured statistical data, both from ground stations and from remote sensing; the other processes are suitably modeled, as briefly described below. At the end of the course, a student must be able to independently model the flow rates, evaporation and transpiration in a river basin of various sizes, after having delineated it starting from digital terrain data. Of course, the student will have to demonstrate that he has critically understood the concepts that underlie the hydrological modeling presented. 
The knowledge acquired may be used in the River Engineering course for the design of defense works. Hydrological modeling also introduces concepts that are used in the course of Aqueducts and Sewers for the calculation of stormwater networks. The course is partly useful for the Hydraulic Protection of the Territory course.  A more condensed part of the version of the course can be found @GWS2021.
An overview of the topics (in Italian) can be found on the seminar done for the District Authority of river Po (here). 

The lectures of the course will be held in English, according to the methods already followed in the Numerical Modeling course (i.e. with summary in Italian at the beginning of the lesson, lessons in English, questions and explanations in Italian). The first part of the course, until on April 3, will be dedicated to the presentation and discussion of theoretical concepts. The lectures will be recorded and uploaded on the course's YouTube channel (or Vimeo). The lessons will cover 4 of the five hours per week. The fifth hour will be dedicated to the preparation of the data necessary for the projects to be completed in the second part of the course. 

Students must take care to understand the hydrological concepts and discuss them with the lecturer. The first twenty minutes of each lesson will be devoted to the discussion of the topics covered in the previous lesson and the problems that arose in the preparation of the data (in Italian). Every group had to prepare an appropriate question or comment to which the lecturer will replay. A summary, again in Italian, of the lesson and then the actual lesson will follow. 
The second part of the course will use the theoretical themes of the first part and using the tools made available by the GEOframe system ( Students, in groups of two or three, will have to estimate hydrological flows and quantities over a significant period of time and with an hourly time step using a time series of hydro-meteorological data in inputs for period long enough to allow adequate calibration of the models. With the help of the tutor and the reader, students will face problems of missing data, validate the models, discuss and implement an adequate configuration of the GEOframe hydrological system in order to get the hydrological water balance of the basin. 

The following works by Abera can be taken as an example of the outcomes expected :

The lessons will be video recorded and made available. Each lesson will be given through slides in English which will be delivered to students in advance. When necessary, the lessons will be accompanied by appropriate in-depth papers. There is no real text because the course, even in the hydrological tradition, elaborates the concepts in a contemporary way and uses innovative tools.
As general reference texts we recommend:

  • Beven, K. - Raifall-runoff, the primer, ISBN 10: 047071459X, ISBN 13: 978047071459, Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
  • Dingmann, L., Physical Hydrology, ISBN-13: 978-1478611189, ISBN-10: 1478611189, Third Edition, Waveland Press, 2015
  • Lu, N. and Godt, J.W., Hillslope Hydrology and Stability, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13: 978-1107021068, ISBN-10: 11070210652010, 2013
  • Bonan, G., Ecological Climatology, concepts and applications, ISBN-13: 978-1107619050, ISBN-10: 110761905X, 2016

These books represent a shareable review of the phenomena and hydrological modeling but the methods they present are not necessarily those used in the course. The course, cause of time constraints, presents a selected and limited perspective of the subject that the texts cited dissect from various points of view often complementary to the one of the course.

The Hydrology Class 2021 - The Schedule

This post contains the foreseen schedule of the course. Material uploaded is subject to modifications prior to the schedule date. All the lectures will be to students present in blended format. Meaning that students can be either present or attend remotely. All of them will be recorded and uploaded to web. 

Topics in bold are definitive. Topics in normal characters are still subject to modifications. 

2021-02-23 - Introduction to the course and to hydrology

2021-02-26  - Ground based Precipitations and their statistics Separation snow-rainfall - measure of precipitation

In this part of the class we describe where it rains and how much it rains using statistical concept. One important objective is to understand what are the extreme precipitations for their importance in engineering. 
2021-03-02 - Some reviews on statistics - Return Period
2021-03-04 Extreme precipitations  (Storyboard2020)
Distributions Storyboard2020
Determination of Gumbel's parameters
2021-03-09 Extreme precipitations  II
2021-03-11 Extreme precipitations  III
Beyond Gumbel
A summary about the extreme precipitation estimations (Whiteboard)

2020-03- 16 - Water in soil and aquifers. Darcy-Buckingham. Hydraulic conductivity. Soil water retention curves (Storyboard2020)

Once precipitations arrive to the ground surface they either infiltrate or generate runoff. We first state how they infiltrate and, actually how water behave in the soil and in the ground. We talk about the complexity of the Earth surface that contains life and call it, the Critical Zone. To study infiltration we introduce the Darcy and Richards equations of which we explain the characteristics. 

2020 - 03- 23  - The Richards equation 
(Storyboard 2020)
2020 - 03- 25  - The Richards equation - II
    2020-04-30 - Runoff Generation and propagation (Summary 2020)

    Once the rainfall gains the terrain, it can infiltrate or producing runoff. In the next we discuss the main mechanism to produce runoff.

    2020-04-01 - The surface water propagation (a brief Storyboard 2021)

    Runoff moves on the surface of the terrain according to the de Saint-Venant equation. In the following the equation is derived in the 1D case.
          Evaporation generalities (Storyboard2020)

    A consistent part of root zone and surface water evaporates and returns to the atmosphere to eventually form clouds and precipitation again. The process follows quite complicate routes and is different when happening from liquid surfaces, soil or vegetation (and BTW animals).  In this group of lectures we try to figure out the physical mechanisms that act in the process and give some hint on methods to estimate evaporation and transpiration with physically based models. 

        Evaporation and Transpiration Formulas

    Tuesday, February 9, 2021

    The Hydrology Class 2021 - Software

    There is no engineering without using models. During the class will be used various open source softwares and resources:

    All these resources are free, besides being open

    For installations requirements, please see the Installations Instructions:

    Lab material of 2020 can be found here