This post contains the foreseen schedule of the course. Material uploaded is subject to modifications prior to the schedule date. All the lectures will be to students present in blended format. Meaning that students can be either present or attend remotely. All of them will be recorded and uploaded to web.

**bold**are definitive. Topics in normal characters are still subject to modifications. All the 2022 videos will be available at this Vimeo Showcase.

**2023-02-27 - Introduction to the course and to hydrology**

- Syllabus (Vimeo2023)
- (Vimeo 2021);
- A very short introduction to hydrology (Vimeo2022)
- Mass & Energy budgets (Vimeo2023)
- A short Lab introductions. Go to the installation page or (look at here for a short video summary)

- Blöschl, Günter. 2022. “Flood Generation: Process Patterns from the Raindrop to the Ocean.” https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2022-2.

**2023-02-28 - Ground based Precipitations and their statistics Separation snow-rainfall - measure of precipitation**

*In this part of the class we describe where it rains and how much it rains using statistical concept. One important objective is to understand what are the extreme precipitations for their importance in engineering.*

- The storyboard of the lecture (on Vimeo)
- A general overview (Vimeo 2023)
*Separation rainfall-snowfall (optional)*- Statistics of ground precipitations (Vimeo2023)

**2023-03-06 -**

**2023-03-13 - Statistics of extreme precipitations**

**Some reviews on statistics - Return Period**

- Whiteboard (2021) on statistics
- A little on exploratory statistics on the blackboard (2022)
- Whiteboard (2020) on Lognormal distribution
- Return period (Vimeo 2023)
- On the difference among risk and hazard (rischio e pericolo) Whiteboard2021.

**Extreme precipitations**(Storyboard2020)

**Determination of Gumbel's parameters**

- Moments method (Vimeo 2023)

- Maximum likelihood (Vimeo 2023)
- Minimi quadrati (Vimeo 2023)
- Test di Pearsons/Chi square (Vimeo 2023)
- Summary (Whiteboard2021)
- More formal on Pearson's Chi square (Vimeo 2023)

**2023-03- 14**-Beyond Gumbel

- A review of the previous classes (Vimeo2023)
- Generalised extreme value distribution (Vimeo 2023)
- Metastatistical Extreme Value (Vimeo 2023)

**2023-03- 14**- Water in soil and aquifers. Darcy-Buckingham. Hydraulic conductivity. Soil water retention curves (Storyboard2020)

*Once precipitations arrive to the ground surface they either infiltrate or generate runoff. We first state how they infiltrate and, actually how water behave in the soil and in the ground. We talk about the complexity of the Earth surface that contains life and call it, the Critical Zone. To study infiltration we introduce the Darcy and Richards equations of which we explain the characteristics.*

- Soils (Vimeo 2023)
- Texture and Structure of soils (Vimeo 2023)
- Vimeo2022_2 Vimeo2022, Vimeo2021,YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.8

**2023-04-03/04**

- Aquifers (Vimeo2023)
- YouTube 2019,Vimeo2021, Vimeo2022, Vimeo2022_2
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry: Groundwater, section 2.7
- Definitions (Vimeo2023)

- Darcy-Buckingham law
- Heuristic reasons for assuming that a Darcy like laws is valid also in the unsaturated case (Vimeo 2023)
- Darcy (Vimeo2023)
- (YouTube 2019, Vimeo 2021,Vimeo2022, Vimeo2022_2)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.1 and section 2.12
- Buckingham (Vimeo2022)
*Old Material**All together (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018)**Buckingham (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo 2021)*

- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.2

- Soil Water RetentionCurves (Vimeo2023)
- SWRC White Board explanation
- On What SWRC depends upon (White Board)
- (YouTube 2017, YouTube2018,YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo2022, Part II)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6

- Hydraulic Conductivity
- Conductivity in unsaturated soils (Vimeo2023)
- Saturated conductivity (Vimeo2021)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.3 and section 2.4
*Further readings**Soil depth**Soil Water Retention Curves**The old post on soils**Preferential flow in hillslopes**Ning Lu's lectures on soil water*- Query and answers on previous material on quantitative soil water analysis

**- The Richardson-Richards equation (Storyboard 2020)2023 - 03- 21**

- Just the divergence Theorem (Vimeo2023)
- (Vimeo2022,YouTube2018,YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021)
- Some clarifications about Richards equation on the Whiteboards (I and II)
- Complementary reading: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater, section 2.6
- Solving Richards equation (Vimeo2023)
- Pedotransfer Functions (Vimeo2023)
- (YouTube2017,YouTube2019 I & II, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo 2022)

**2023-03-27**

- Richards 1D (Vimeo2023)
- (YouTube2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021,Vimeo2022)
- Our attention on the interface sand-clay (Vimeo2021)
*(Optional) simplifications of Richards 1D (YouTube2017,YouTube2019)*- Further information:

- Macropores and Three-Dimensional infitration on hillslopes (Vimeo2023)
- The groundwater equation (Vimeo2023)
- (YouTube2019,Vimeo 2021,Vimeo2022)
- Textbook: Freeze and Cherry, Groundwater (Section 2.9 and section 2.11)

*Further Readings or views (optionals)*

**2021-04-20**- Runoff Generation and propagation (Summary 2020)

*Once the rainfall gains the terrain, it can infiltrate or producing runoff. In the next we discuss the main mechanisms that produce runoff.*

**- Runoff - Runoff 2022**

**2022-05-03**- The surface water propagation (a brief Storyboard 2021)

*Runoff moves on the surface of the terrain according to the de Saint-Venant equation. In the following the equation is derived in the 1D case.*

- The de Saint Venant equation 1D (Vimeo2023)
- The continuity equation
- The Momentum budget (Vimeo 2023)

**Evaporation generalities **

**(**Storyboard2020

**)**

*A consistent part of root zone and surface water evaporates and returns to the atmosphere to eventually form clouds and precipitation again. The process follows quite complicate routes and is different when happening from liquid surfaces, soil or vegetation (and BTW animals). In this group of lectures we try to figure out the physical mechanisms that act in the process and give some hint on methods to estimate evaporation and transpiration with physically based models.*

- Definitions (Vimeo2023)
- Evaporation Thermodynamics
- Evaporation as Entropy growth (Vimeo2023)
- Evaporation causes diffusion of water vapor and the Clausius Clapeyron Equation (Vimeo2023)
- (YouTube 2019, Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo2022,Vimeo2022_2)
*Old Material:*(YouTube2018)- Turbulent transport of vapor (and other quantities): the Daltonian law (Vimeo2023)
- YouTube2018, YouTube 2019, Zoom2020,Vimeo2021,Vimeo2022,Vimeo2022_2
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (cap. 2.2)
- Whiteboards:
- A short reminder (Evaporation as vapor transport and evaporation as phase transition)
- On the parametrization of turbulence
- And again on the logarithm profile

**2022-05-08**

- Evaporation as energy flux (Vimeo2023)
- (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo 2022)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (chap. 2.3)
- Evaporation form soils (Vimeo2023)
- (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo 2022)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (chap. 2.4.1-2.4.3)
- Transpiration (Vimeo2023)
- (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Part I - Vimeo 2022, Part II after a small summary)
- Plants physiology and resistances to transpiration (supplemental material)
- Textbook M. Bottazzi (chap. 3.0-3.3)
- Various stuffs
- Answer to a student on displacement length and roughness length (Whiteboard2020)
- Some missing link about q(z0), the specific humidity at the evaporating surface (Storyboard2020)
- A little more of synthesis and a summary for what is above (Storyboard2020)

**2022-05-15**- Evaporation and Transpiration Formulas

- Schymanski & Or derivation of Penman-Monteith equation (Vimeo2023)
- (Zoom2020, Vimeo2021,Vimeo2022)
- Textbook: M. Bottazzi (cap. 2.3.2-2.3.5)
- Simplification of the P-M solution (PM-FAO e Priestley-Taylor) (Vimeo2023)
- From Leaves to Canopies (Vimeo2023)
- Zoom2020, Vimeo2022
- Textbook M. Bottazzi (chap. 3.4)

**2022-05-15**-

**After all radiation moves it all**

- Radiation
- The Sun (YouTube 2017)
- Stefan-Boltzmann law and radiation spectrum (Vimeo2023)
- Sun to Earth (Vimeo 2023)
- Coping with latitude and longitude (Vimeo2023)
- Coping with Sloped terrain (Vimeo2023)
- Shadows, diffuse light and view angle (Vimeo2023)
- Atmospheric Absorptions (Vimeo2022)
- Copying with albedo and terrain cover properties
- Long wave radiation (Vimeo2022)
- Table of symbols
- Readings:
- Corripio, J. G. (2002). Modelling the energy balance of high altitude glacierised basins in the Central Andes. Ph.D Dissertation, 1–175.
- Corripio, J. G. (2003). Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainous terrain. Int. J. Geographical Information Science, 17(1), 1–23.
- Formetta, G., Rigon, R., Chávez, J. L., & David O. (2013). Modeling shortwave solar radiation using the JGrass-NewAge system. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(4), 915–928. http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-915-2013
- Formetta, G., Bancheri, M., David, O., & Rigon, R. (2016). Performance of site-specific parameterizations of longwave radiation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20(11), 4641–4654. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-4641-2016
- Various material from the AboutHydrology blog
- Q&A - Some questions on radiation, your answers and my comments.